Cortisone / Cortisone

Content

Introduction

Introduction

Cortisone is a hormone corticosteroid with anti-inflammatory characteristics. It is naturally produced, in small quantities, by the adrenal glands when stressful situations arise.

THEcortisone they are synthetic drugs with a chemical structure similar to natural corticosteroids which are mainly used for anti-inflammatory purposes and to reduce the activity of the immune system.

Cortisone was first identified by the American chemist Edward C. Kendall, who following its discovery was then awarded the Nobel Prize for medicine in 1950.

Reproduced by synthesis in the laboratory, starting from the end of the 1940s its experimentation on patients suffering from rheumatoid arthritis or other diseases began and, given the excellent results obtained, pharmaceutical production was started.

Features and Uses

Features and Uses

Cortisone and cortisone are now used for their anti-inflammatory effect and reduction of the activity of the body's defense system (immune system) in the treatment of autoimmune and various other diseases such as:

  • rheumatoid arthritis
  • Ulcerative colitis
  • dermatitis
  • endocrinopathies
  • systemic lupus erythematosus
  • allergic diseases (asthma, rhinitis, etc.)
  • eye diseases (keratitis, uveitis, etc.)
  • nephritis
  • acute joint rheumatism
  • transplant rejection therapies

The anti-inflammatory action is intended to reduce and mitigate disorders (symptoms) without eliminating the cause. As an immunosuppressant, cortisone performs its function in cases where it is necessary to obtain a reduction or elimination of the immune response, as in the case of diseases autoimmune or organ transplants.

The use of corticosteroids can take place in different ways. In therapies for persistent (chronic) or long-lasting diseases they are mainly used by mouth (oral route) or by air (inhalations); in urgent situations they are administered through injection (intramuscular, intravenous and subcutaneous) while in dermatology and ophthalmology local treatment is preferred (topical) with the use of creams, eye drops, sprays.

For more information on the active ingredients named in the contribution or in any case belonging to this class of drugs, you can visit the website of the Italian Medicines Agency (AIFA) by clicking HERE. To search for a drug using the trade name and not the active ingredient, you can click HERE. Inside the site you can find all the package leaflets of the drugs and also some additional information. If "revoked" is written next to the drug name, the drug is no longer on the market.

Types

Types

Among the most used cortisone are included:

  • cortisone
  • hydrocortisone
  • deflazacort
  • prednisone
  • dexamethasone
  • betamethasone
  • paramethasone
  • triamcyclone
  • fluorometolone
Side effects

Side effects

Cortisone and cortisone drugs have numerous side effects linked, above all, to the dose and duration of the treatment and only minimally to the type of cortisone used.

While significant effects for short-term use or local treatments are to be excluded, in the case of intensive and long-lasting treatments, the following may occur:

  • weight gain
  • acne
  • skin changes
  • redness of the face
  • mood changes
  • muscle and bone weakness
  • bleeding
  • swelling of the face and hands due to water retention
  • hyperglycemia
  • hypertension
  • osteoporosis and bone demineralization
  • sodium retention
  • pancreatitis
  • peptic ulcer

Furthermore, undesirable effects (side effects) can be enhanced by the simultaneous intake of diuretics, oral antidiabetics, salicylates.

The intake of cortisone and cortisone drugs for prolonged periods of time determines the reduction of the physiological production of cortisone by the adrenal glands. In the event of an abrupt interruption of treatment, therefore, disorders related to the lack of the hormone may occur (syndrome of deprivation ). For this reason, it is necessary to gradually and gradually reduce the cortisone dosage under the direct supervision of the doctor.

Contraindications

Contraindications

The use of cortisone and cortisone is contraindicated in case of gastroduodenal ulcer, diabetes, glaucoma, hypertension, osteoporosis, in cardiovascular and renal diseases with arterial hypertension, in psychosis, tuberculosis and infectious diseases. In the presence of these conditions, the doctor the treating person, or the specialist, will evaluate the opportunity of administering corticosteroids on a case by case basis on the basis of the risks and benefits.

Interactions with other medicines

Interactions with other medicines

Generally, no particularly serious interactions with other types of drugs are reported for cortisone and cortisone. It is good, however, to always notify your doctor if you are also taking other medicines, or if you are pregnant or breastfeeding, for a proper assessment of any risks.

Furthermore, cortisone is indicated among the drugs that enhance the action of anticoagulants and in association with acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) can increase the risk of gastrointestinal bleeding and stomach ulcer.

In-depth link

In-depth link

NHS. Steroids (English)

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